Contrary to widespread belief propagated mostly by the Western ignoramus press, the Hausa People are a minority in Nigeria. Queen Amina of Zaria was a prominent Hausa in history.
The average indigene of Northern Nigeria is not an Hausa Man or Woman.
Yes, the Hausa language is widely spoken but mostly by non-Hausa northerners.
El-Kanemi of Kanem Bornu Empire was not Hausa. The Zuru People of Kebbi State are not Hausa
There is no such tribe or language called Hausa-Fulani. In fact the average fulani we see these days, especially the enlightened ones, cannot speak Fufulde (the Fulani dialect)
The average Southern Nigerian thinks anyone who hails from any part of the north is Hausa. Fact. But they are wrong. There are ”minorities” in about 98% of Northern Nigeria whose tribe and culture are non-hausa. The society is so plural that if not for the preponderance of the Hausa Language, it would have been a Babel of Confusion coexisting in the northern parts of Nigeria.
The most enterprising, educated and enlightened Northern Nigerians are actually the minorities who according to the revered Sir Ahmadu Bello would be used to deal ruthlessly with the Southern Nigerians whom he affirmed were CONQUERED TERRITORIES.
200 Years before the Fulani came to Nigerian territory, Queen Amina of Zazzau (Zaria) had expanded the territory of the Hausa Map to ‘swallow’ neighbouring non-Hausa tribes….
READ ON: Amina of Zaria (1533-1610?), commonly known as the warrior queen, expanded the territory of the Hausa people of north Africa to the largest borders in history. More than 400 years later, the legend of her persona became the model for a television series about a fictional warrior princess, called Xena.
Amina was the warrior queen of Zazzau (now Zaria). She is known also as Amina Sarauniya Zazzau. She lived approximately 200 years prior to the establishment of the Sokoto-Caliphate federation that governed Nigeria during the period of British colonial rule following the Islamic jahad (holy war) that overtook the region in the nineteenth century. According to most accounts, Queen Amina ruled for 34 years at the turn of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Her domain of Zazzau, a city-state of Hausaland, was eventually renamed to Zaria and is the capital of the present-day emirate of Kaduna in Nigeria. Although many details of her life remain largely in dispute among historians, the fact that she existed is a matter of general acceptance, and she is presumed to have been a Moslem ruler. Much of what is known of Queen Amina is based on information related in the Kano Chronicles, a translation by Muhammed Bello of pre-colonial African tradition based in part on anonymous Hausa writings. Other details were pulled from the oral traditions of Nigeria. As a result, the memory of Queen Amina assumed legendary proportions in her native Hausaland and beyond. The extent of her military prowess and her performance in battle was augmented by lore and remains unclear.
The reign of Amina occurred at a time when the city-state of Zazzau was situated at the crossroad of three major trade corridors of northern Africa, connecting the region of the Sahara with the remote markets of the southern forest lands and the western Sudan. It was the rise and fall of the powerful and more dominant Songhai (var. Songhay) people and the resulting competition for control of trade routes that incited continual warring among the Hausa people and the neighboring settlements during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It was not until later that a ruling arrangement between the Hausa and the Fulani people ultimately brought a lasting peace to the region and survived into the colonial era of the nineteenth century.
How Federalism was destroyed in Nigeria
By REMI OYEYEMI
Monday, April 2, 2012
It was Uthman Dan Fodio, a Fulani and great Islamic scholar who described “Conscience” as “an open wound” that could only be healed by “the truth.” Whatever served as the inspiration for this concept could not be anything other than awesome.
The fact that this same Dan Fodio is the great grandfather of Sir Ahmadu Bello, the late Sardauna of Sokoto and Premier of Northern Region, the man who have played a prominent role in the Nigerian vicissitudes makes it highly imperative that we all open our “consciences” and allow “the truth” to heal them, if Nigeria must be saved.
It is important that Nigeria returns to true Federalism if it must survive. In this era when there is clamour for the Sovereign National Conference (SNC), it is important that we try to look back in History and examine how our Federalism was unmade. This is because as the Spanish born American Essayist George Santayana once contended, “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” In this venture, all of us, regardless of our ethnic background must allow “the truth” to nurture and heal our “consciences” for the sake of our collective survival as a country.
The Nigerian Federalism was unmade via two fronts: (1) Structural or Political and (2) Fiscal or Financial
In 1952, Sir Ahmadu Bello, the Sultan of Sokoto and the leader of the Northern Peoples Congress (NPC) made the following request to the Nigerian Colonial Secretary, Mr. Oliver Lyttleton:“If you want us (the North) to be part of this Nigeria you have in mind, then we want 50% of the membership of the National Assembly.”
It would be recalled that as a result of the elections of 1954, there were 162 seats in the Nigerian National Assembly. Out of this, the South had 83 seats (51.23%) and the North had 79 seats (48.76%), including the Yoruba people of Kwara. This means that if the Kwara people were not lumped with the North, they would still have less number of seats than 79, since this was based on population.
This shows that the South of Nigeria has always been more populous than the North of Nigeria. But Sultan Bello, as evident from this 1952 request, has a different idea. If one considers his aristocratic background, one would have an understanding of his fear of “pure” democracy. Aristocracy is “the government of a country by a small group of people especially a hereditary nobility” which is “a group believed to be superior to all others of the same kind.”
Thus for the Sultan to seek to dominate by any means necessary, would seem natural to him.
In 1957, he refused the independence of Nigeria because he insisted the North was not ready. But the North was ready when he got what he wanted, and more, before Nigerian Independence in 1960. The British overlords, in order to assuage Sultan Bello’s fears and put Nigeria in his control, created in 1959, 312 seats for the Nigerian National Assembly without any election or new Census. Out of this 312, the North was allocated 174 and the South 138 in the anticipation of the Parliamentary Political System being put in place for Nigeria’s independence. Sultan Bello asked for 50% of the seats in the National Assembly, he got 55.7%. Suddenly, an apartheid system was put in place as the majority South, became the minority and the minority North became the majority.
This is where the future of Nigeria was unmade, and the seed for the destruction of the Nigerian Federalism was sowed. This development gave unburnished confidence to Sultan Bello who declared on October 12, 1960, in an interview with The Parrot, just days after independence the following words: “This New Nation called Nigeria, should be an estate of our great grand father, Uthman Dan Fodio. We must ruthlessly prevent a change of power. We use the minorities in the North as willing tools, and the South, as conquered territory and never allow them to rule over us, and never allow them to have control over their future.”
With Alhaji Tafawa Balewa firmly in charge in Lagos, Sir Bello’s confidence became ebullient. To him Chief Obafemi Awolowo has been a thorn in his flesh politically, having maintained an effective opposition to the feudalisation of Nigeria. Earlier in 1959, he had vowed to make Chief Awolowo pay dearly for forcing him to canvass for the votes of his Northern people. Awolowo had to be caged. Thus in the Daily Times of May 3, 1961, Sir Bello said the following:
“I’m set and fully armed, to conquer the Action Group, AG, in the same ruthless manner as my grandfather conquered Alkalawa, a town in Sokoto province, during the last century.” In May 1962, twelve months after this statement, the NPC Prime Minister of Nigeria, Tafawa Balewa, acting on instructions from Sultan Bello moved a motion to Declare A State of Emergency in Western Region. Below is an excerpt of Chief Awolowo’s contribution opposing the motion of Prime Minister Balewa on May 29, 1962:
“Not long ago after independence, there was rioting of a most severe nature in the Tiv Division of Northern Nigeria. Several lives were lost, several properties were destroyed, there was arson and a host of other crimes were committed. At that time, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa was the Prime Minister as he is today. He did not think it fit to call this parliament to declare a state of public emergency in the Northern Region. Also in Okrika – there was widespread rioting in Okrika; again, several lives and properties were lost. I understand that this widespread rioting in Okrika occurred twice in the Eastern Region. The Prime Minister and the cabinet did not think it fit on that occasion to declare a state of public emergency in the Eastern Region.
“But, because the Action Group is pursuing the normal democratic processes as laid down in our constitution to oust someone who happens to be a very close friend of the Prime Minister, and also because the AG is looked upon as a moral foe to the NPC, this very far-reaching provision of our constitution is now being invoked, …..It is doing violence to our constitution and doing violence to the construction of words to suggest that what happened in the Western House of Assembly amounts to a state of public emergency.”
On July 16, 1962, exactly 46 days after Chief Awolowo moved this motion and fourteen months after Sir Bello made the statement of conquest of the AG, Chief Awolowo was arrested on the trumped up charges of Treasonable Felony. On November 2, 1962, Chief Awolowo and 28 other members of his party were put on trial. After a hearing lasting eleven months, he was sentenced (September 11, 1963) to ten years imprisonment. This effectively shut down the opposition to the unmaking of Nigerian Federalism which continued unabated.
Thus, why Awolowo was incarcerated, the Northern Peoples Congress led Federal Government embarked on headcount. This exercise was headed by a Briton as Federal Census Officer, Mr. J. J. Warren. The exercise was later cancelled because it was unacceptable. Daniel Agbowu in his book “NIGERIA: The Truth” quoted from M. Crowder’s book, “Story of Nigeria” published in 1966 noting that “The 1962 figures were first questioned in the first place not by politicians but by the civil servant in charge of the Census.”
The Census was re-conducted in 1963 but not without controversy. The figure released on February 24, 1964 is as follows:
This was in contrast to the initial figure of over 60 million. Dr. Michael Okpara, Premier of Eastern Region described it as “worse than useless.” Chief Dennis Osadebey characterised it as the “stupendous joke of our age.” Chief S. L. Akintola, reveling in his supposed invulnerability having allied himself to the NPC, which masterminded the incarceration of Awolowo, gladly “accepted the census figures” and said “the figures were accurate.”
Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe, encumbered by his involvement in the Balewa government, could not effectively articulate the anger of his people as he pleaded that “all should remain calm” because the Census controversy “might plunge the nation into disaster.” Chief Awolowo was meanwhile effectively out of circulation. Sultan Bello had come out smoking as he threatened that “he and his party were ready for a complete showdown” and “warned all Nigerians” that his “Government has accepted the published figures.” Tafawa Balewa ignored all the protestations and went ahead to distribute the seats in the National Assembly as follows:
North 168 53.8%,
East 69 21 %,
West (Lagos included) 61 19.6%,
Midwest 14 4.5%.
The Eastern Region Solicitor General, Mr. D. O. Ibekwe “took out a writ in the Supreme Court to restrain the Federal Government from using the 1963 Census figures for delineation of the country.” But the Supreme Court said it had no jurisdiction over the case, thus the unmaking of Nigerian Federalism continued.
Crisis followed that action of 1964 by Tafawa Balawa. In the West, the people took their destiny in their hands to confront the government of S. L. Akintola in an episode ingloriously referred to as “wet e.” The Tiv Riots, simmering since 1960 also came to a head in 1964 in what was called “nande nande” (burning burning) and “atem ityough” (head breaking). The whole country went up in flames which unfortunately, consumed the main actors, Sir Ahmadu Bello, Sir Tafawa Balewa and Chief S. L. Akintola, as the Military ascended the political pedestal to continue the serial rigging of Nigeria’s Federalism.
As at the time the First Republic went up in flames in 1966, there were different constitutions for each region and Nigeria. Each region has its own High Commissioner in London. What does this mean? It meant that every region was in control of its destiny. Most historical analysts believed that General Aguiyi Ironsi who took over the reign of power from the uncoordinated plotters of the coup was the first leader who actually practicalised Unitarism of the Nigerian political space, at least officially.
Reasons for this should not be difficult to decipher given the chaos that ended the First Republic. But this particular act coupled with the fact that in the January 15, 1966 coup led by mainly Igbo officers, Sultan Ahmadu Bello, Alhaji Tafawa Balewa (both Fulani) and Chief S. L. A. Akintola (Yoruba) were killed. But this was reportedly an excuse for the July 25, 1966 coup led by Murtala Mohammed that eventually saw the installation of Lt. Colonel Yakubu Gowon as the military Head of State.
If the Northern soldiers abhored Unitarism, part of the reason they had allegedly staged a vengeance coup, one would have thought that things would have been different on taking power. But alas, that was not the case. The Aburi Agreement meant to calm the nerves after the 1966 pogrom that would have guaranteed each region the control of its own destiny was violated by the North led Federal Government which went ahead to break Nigeria into twelve states. One region, the North ended up with six states. The three other regions ended up with 6 states in yet another rigging of Nigeria. And then there was the Civil War and the unmaking of Nigerian Fiscal Federalism commenced in earnest.
The Constitution establishing Nigeria stipulated 50% derivation “in respect of any Mineral extracted from that region.” Sub-sections 1,2 3,4 and 5 of the Constitution explained this in detail. But this would not deter the rigging of Nigeria as Yakubu Gowon unilaterally took off 5% oil receipt of the Niger Delta leaving them with 45%. He then proceeded with another Census in 1973. At first, Gowon came out with a total of 79,758,969. The six states of the North got 51 million while the Southern six states were given barely 28,758,969.
“This meant that the population of the North had jumped from 53.6% in 1963/64 to 63.8 in 1973/74 census. The Southern population had dwindled to 36.2% from 46.4%….” The Chairman of the census board late Sir Adetokunbo Ademola said “the figures published by Gowon were not my making.” Chief Obafemi Awolowo, now out of incarceration called the 1973 census a “barren exercise..”
To appreciate the extent of the rigging of the census figures, a comparative analysis of the figures alloted to the North of Nigeria showed that Niger Republic with 1,266,700sq km in land space in the desert has 5,013,966 population in 1973. Chad with 1,259,200 sq km of space had 4,011,856 population in 1973. But the North of Nigeria sharing boundaries with Chad and Niger Republic and with 679,534 sq km of space had 51million! The 1990/91 Census gave the North 47,261,959. Nothing points more to rigging when you look at the 1973 figures of 51 million and 1990 figure of over 47 million. There is no scientific explanation for the reduced difference of almost 4 million.
The Northerners rigged the population in favour of the North and used it as a basis to create States and local governments to the North’s advantage as ameans to siphoning resources to the disadvantage of the South. The Northern Military rulers who created states made sure that the North always had more states than the South as the table below shows:
At the risk of stating the obvious, it is an open seceret that the North has 64 more local governments than the entire South – North 419 LGs to South’s 355. What is obvious is the careless abandon with which money is allocated to the states and local governments of the North such that the North takes home 21/2 times what the former Eastern Region took, and 3 to 4 times what the Western Region took and at times, as much as 10 times what the former Mid-Western Region took.
According to “Nigeria: The Truth,” since 1980 when the Federation Account was introduced before the 13% derivation was resuscitated, the take home of each region in percentage of the total accrued money is as follows:
Not many Nigerians are aware that the Northern Region paid custom duties to the Western Region until 1976, when Murtala Mohammed took over the reigns of Government. Or that as at 1975 when Murtala Mohammend overthrew the Yakubu Gowon administration, the Niger Delta enjoyed 45% rents and royalties? Murtala Mohammed slashed it to 20% (Decree No. 6 of 1975) to assuage the Northern States, before Olusegun Obasanjo, through the Aboyade Technical Commission which recommended the removal of the remaining 20% of the rents and royalties, finally nailed the coffin of the Southern States without any protest from the people of the Niger Delta or other parts of the South.
Since then the North has been having advantages in appointments and resource distribution and have been robbing Peter to pay Paul. Now that the call for Sovereign National Conference is increasing, it is important that Nigerians isolate where the country went off the track and seek ways to retrace their steps as a way of moving forward. The way to go include but not limited to the following: Install True Federalism and allow each region to have its own constitution according to the Principles of Self Determination;
This will put an end to the apartheid system where the minority North is lording it over the majority South.;
This will end the injustice against the South, the goose laying the eggs being deprived of appropriate entitlements to its resources; Allow a minimum of 45% derivation if we cannot go back to the old 50%;
Allow state or regional police force and dismantle the Nigeria Police Force;
Decentralise the Nigerian Armed Forces and allow each region to manage its own defence;
Decentralise power generation; and Let each Region or zone be able to enunciate its own economic plan without the Central Bank being able to overrule them.
The Middle Belt Federation In The British Nigeria
Written by Leonard Karshima Shilgba, PhD
Created on 19 May 2011
Eleven days after Nigeria got her political independence on October 1, 1960, the Sardauna of Sokoto, Sir Ahmadu Bello said, as was carried by the Parrot newspaper on October 12, 1960:
“The new nation called Nigeria should be an estate of our great grandfather Othman Dan Fodio. We must ruthlessly prevent a change of power. We use the minorities in the north as willing tools and the south as a conquered territory and never allow them to rule over us and never allow them to have control over their future.” – Parrot Newspaper October 12, 1960.
Now, there are important revelations about the vision of Sir Ahmadu Bello, as captured in the above, and which vision his people have executed with great effectiveness for the past 5 decades:
1. Nigeria is an estate of their great grandfather Othman Dan Fodio, and so anyone who does not descend from their forebear is a tenant. The vision is to maintain a tenancy status for all non-Dan Fodians dwelling within the geographical boundaries of Nigeria.
2. To prevent ruthlessly any change of order that wrestles power from the Dan Fodians.
3. To use and manipulate all “minorities” of the “north” as the slaves of the Dan Fodians.
4. To control the resources of tenants (non-Dan Fodians) in their estate (Nigeria).
5. To resist any form of rule over the Dan Fodians.
6. To never allow non-Dan Fodians to have control over their future.
The pursuit of the above vision and the brutal enforcement of this vision have contributed in the many crises Nigeria has faced for more than fifty years. The connivance of western powers such as Britain and the USA at different stages of our history for the sake of protecting their interest has been a recurring scenario that has just refused to go away. Now is the time to end this subjugation that has been as insidious as it has been hidden from the majority of peoples of the world, including some Nigerians.
We the peoples of the Middle Belt in particular and non Dan Fodians, in general, must rise up and resist this egregiously inhuman vision with every sense of pride and purpose. You can never be wrong in seeking to be free. Some have derisively asked the clear description of the Middle Belt peoples. Socially speaking, all non-Dan Fodians in the geographical north and central north are Middle Belt people, the oppressed people, deceptively huddled up under the “One North” of Sir Ahmadu Bello. However, geographically, it is generally acceptable to many scholars from the region that the Middle Belt federation consists of people in the present BENUE, NASSARAWA, TARABA, ADAMAWA, PLATEAU, SOUTHERN KEBBI, KOGI, KWARA, NIGER, SOUTHERN KADUNA, FCT, SOUTHERN GOMBE, and the two minority local government areas of TAFAWA BALEWA and BOGORO in southern Bauchi State.
We the Middle Belt federation must take charge of our future. A starting point is to press for the rejection and crashing of the 1999 “constitution”, which is a fraud instigated by the Dan Fodians in order to achieve the vision itemized above (1-6). It is for our children that we must fight. I have approached some lawyers to file a symbolic case on behalf of the Middle Belt people to declare our outright rejection of the 1999 “constitution” as a fraud. But it appears they are chicken-hearted. Are there any lawyers, or do you Middle Belters and our friends know any lawyers that will agree to do this? So long as nothing is done to change the vision-fortune of the Dan Fodians, so long will the Middle Belt people remain the appendage of the Dan Fodians.
ACTION POINT: Spread this information and help us project this fact of our plight before the law courts and the international community. Our focus is to compel the convocation of a sovereign national conference, where we shall all discuss whether and on what terms the various ethnic nationalities shall co-exist as one people. We reject the present subjugation with all our strength, with our entire mind, and with all our soul.
Leonard Karshima Shilgba is an Associate Professor of Mathematics with the American University of Nigeria and President of the Nigeria Rally Movement (www.nigeriarally.org ). Leonard Shilgba is also the Coordinator of the Middle Belt Federation under the Middle Belt Coalition agenda.
TEL: +234 (0) 8055024356; EMAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
1. “Let us for forget our differences……..” Nnamdi Azikiwe was said to have canvassed to which Ahmadu Bello retorted “No, we cannot forget our differences, we have to understand our differences….”
2. ”Whatever happens in the North is our own doing – Sultan of Sokoto
Respected Islamic cleric and Sultan of Sokoto Dr. Muhammed Sa’ad Abubakar III has said that the present insecurity and other associated challenges tearing the northern region apart were caused by the region itself.
The traditional ruler said this while speaking in Kaduna at a meeting of the Northern Governors Peace and Reconciliation Committee. He noted that the problem of the north will remain the problem of the entire country, since the north could not be left with its problems alone”.
3. Lawal Kaita a prominent member of the ACF did make the following statement in October of 2010; “anything short of a Northern President is tantamount to stealing our presidency. Jonathan has to go and he will go. Even if he uses incumbency powers to get his nomination on the platform of the PDP, he will be frustrated out” “The North is determined, if that happens, to make the country ungovernable for President Jonathan or any other Southerner who finds his way to the seat of power
4. “We all talk about Jonathan. He is not responsible for our ill luck. These problems have been building up for decades and are the results of the activities of previous governments. Jonathan is not a magician, the problems that have built up over four decades, you wouldn’t expect Jonathan to come up and solve them all. And Nigerians are not giving him the opportunity to have the peace of mind to deal with the problems. During election, certain people said they were going to make the country ungovernable for him. Is the country governable now?” – Dr Frederick Fasheun, founder of Oodua Peoples Congress (OPC).
5. Ukaegbu E. Ukaegbu wrote: on 21 May at 15:39 ·
NORTH BOMBING THE NORTH TURNS AROUND TO BLAME PRESIDENT
Just in case you don’t know, the key security personnel in GEJ’s administration are:
Defense Minister Lt-General Aliyu Gusau – NORTH
National Security Adviser – Colonel Sambo Dasuki – NORTH
Inspector-General of Police- M.D. Abubakar – NORTH
Just letting you know! So, if I may ask once again, how is the concept of making country ungovernable working for the north?
President Jonathan has earned all sorts of names but who really is to blame?
6. FACT, apart from Jonathan, No one has ever RULED NIGERIA if he is not military or LOYAL to Hausa-Fulani and Hands power back to them (eg GOWON who was overthrown, and OBJ who handed over to SHAGARI AND UMYA). No southern CIVILIAN HAS EVER RULED Nigeria before Jonathan (Abiola would have been the first but he was murdered). AND NOTE: No coup by a non HAUSAFULANI has ever succeed without being quashed….ALL COUPS by HAUSA FULANI have ALWAYS succeeded…for lenghty years.
7. “Many Hausa-Fulani told me that the North’s escalating poverty has resulted from its declining access to oil because of its loss of the presidency to Olusegun Obasanjo, a Southern Christian Yoruba, following the death of the Northern Muslim Kanuri, Sani Abacha. Their solution to Northern poverty was to recapture the federal government. This they did in the rigged elections of 2007 and the presidency of Umaru Yar’Adua. But, they lost it again when Yar’Adua died in May 2010 and the vice president, Goodluck Jonathan, a Christian Ijaw from Southern Nigeria, became president.” – John Campbell, Former US Ambassador to Nigeria.
EXCERPTS FROM HAROLD SMITH’S CONFESSIONS:
” The north was seriously encouraged to go into the military. According to him, they believe that the south may attend western education, but future leaders will always come from military background.
Their traditional rulers were to be made influential and super human. The northerners were given accelerated promotions both in the military and civil service to justify their superiority over the south. Everything was to work against the south. We truncated their good plan for their future. “I was very sorry for the A.G; it was a great party too much for African standard. We planned to destroy Awolowo and Azikwe well, the west and the east and sowed a seed of discord among them”. We tricked Azikwe into accepting to be president having known that Balewa will be the main man with power. Awolowo has to go to jail to cripple his genius plans for a greater Nigeria. However, Harold Smith justified the British agenda of colonialism in Nigeria, which he believed was originally to help build Africa after the ruins of slave trade, but lamented that the British only looked after themselves and not after Nigerian interest. The British really let Nigeria down. When I see Nigerian been accused of fraud and from what I saw on the streets of Lagos; the British were worst fraudsters.
Looking at the northern leaders now he said, “If they have any agenda in Nigeria at all, sadly it is only for the north, and nothing for Nigeria. He stated that the British look after the British people and this is so all over the world. He said the time has come now to see people of intelligent minds with an open and inclusive agenda for all Nigerians in power…people who will really look after Nigerians large population…but “I still curiously and sorrowfully see now that the British has not let go of Nigeria…her wealth,. her potentials, her future. He opined that the Caucasian people now assert themselves as the keeper of the “New Age” keys. He therefore said that it is only logical for Europeans to maintain their position of power, scientific superiority, economic exploitation, they must continue to perpetuate their lies and falsehoods and this is the most unkindest cut of all in relation to Nigeria situation!
According to him, Nigeria, a great nation was crippled not because of military juntas or corrupt leaders alone but by the British and American fear of Nigeria great future. He confessed, “The fear of the place that will be our ‘dumping ground’ really occupied our minds” http://haroldsmithmemorial.wordpress.com/2011/01/05/legendary-harold-smith-speaks-about-nigeria/
Commentary and Compilation by Henry Omoregie
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